> Ŀ > > > 2014^пڱ


ʱ䣺2016-12-05 ߣ Դڣվ


Part A: Spot Dictation

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a passage and read the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE.


   Good morning, class. Todays topic is Idioms and Their Origins. An idiom is a phrase or expression with ________________ (1). The meaning of an idiom often cannot be understood from the meaning of ________________ (2) in it. In our language, idioms are an important part and they often make our language ________________ (3). So in todays lecture, lets look at the origins of some English idioms. The first ________________ (4) on our list is Raining cats and dogs. This is an interesting phrase. It is ________________ (5) the well-known antipathy between dogs and cats, which is ________________ (6) in the phrase 'fight like cat and dog. However, there are ________________ (7) about the origin of the well-known expression, Raining cats and dogs. One theory is that ______________ (8), the roofs on houses were made of hay. Youve probably heard of ________________ (9), well that's all they were. Thick straw, piled high, with ________________ (10). Those thatch roofs were the only place for the little animals to ________________ (11). So all the pets in the house; dogs, cats and ________________ (12), even mice, rats, bugs, all lived in the roof. When it rained ________________ (13) so sometimes the animals would slip and ________________ (14). Thus the saying, "it's raining cats and dogs." Another explanation is that heavy rain would wash dead animals ________________ (15). In the 18th century, streets in England were rather filthy and heavy rain would occasionally______________ (16) dead animals and other debris. The animals didn't fall from the sky, but the sight of dead cats and dogs ________________ (17) in storms could well have caused the coining of this colourful phrase. The most popular one comes from ________________ (18) in which cats were a symbol for rain and dogs ________________ (19). Thus, its cats and dogs out there is often used to describe ________________ (20) with strong winds.  


Part B: Listening Comprehension

1. Statements

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short statements. These statements will be spoken ONLY ONCE, and you will not find them written on the paper; so you must listen carefully. When you hear a statement, read the answer choices and decide which one is closest in meaning to the statement you have heard. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.


1. (A) Start working if you arrive before I do.

(B) Before you get there, be sure to finish the homework.

(C) Go as early as possible so we can do lots of work.

(D) If they arrive late, well need more time to work.




2. (A) You should come back to the office later to apply for the part-time job.

(B) You must complete some paperwork and wait to be interviewed.

(C) Your application form for the part-time job has been misplaced.

(D) Youre not going to get the part-time job even if you apply for it.


3. (A) Florence got off for a trip to London two week ago.

(B) Florence got back from a fortnight trip to London.

(C) Florence tripped and got her back hurt in Shanghai.

(D) Florence returned last night after a short stay in Shanghai.


4. (A) I like the toy, but my nephew doesnt.

(B) I dont think you can replace that toy.

(C) I want to give the money back to my nephew.

(D) I would like a full refund, not just another toy.


5. (A) Nowadays, young people around the world prefer speaking English.

(B) English cannot compete with Chinese in over 100 countries.

(C) Chinese will become a global language in the future.

(D) Chinese is a language spoken by the most people on the planet.


6. (A) Math and writing are the two most important courses in your college life.

(B) Some basic skills are necessary, no matter what your major is at college.

(C) Your interests are the best motivation in choosing your college major.

(D) Despite your interests and aptitudes, you should choose writing or math as your



7. (A) He is Jack of all trades in our office.

(B) He is appointed consultant to our department.

(C) He likes to sit in the back of the car as though he were the boss.

(D) He tries to control things though he has no authority to do so.


8. (A) American businessmen always conclude business deals over lunch.

(B) American companies usually settle disagreements at the business lunch.

(C) It is very important that you behave properly at the business lunch.

(D) It is no more a common practice that you do business over lunch.


9. (A) Some of our health problems can be attributed to the pressures of modern life.

(B) Some stress-related disorders such as heart disease are a threat to our modern life.

(C) The pressures of modern life may be heavier because of our health problems.

(D) Heart attacks, headaches and insomnia highlight the pressures of modern life.


10. (A) Cultural differences can make international negotiations difficult.

(B) Most negotiations in this city often involves international business.

(C) Mastering a foreign language is more important for parties in international


(D) International business should be conducted by people with the same cultural



2. Talks and Conversations

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several short talks and conversations. After each of these, you will hear a few questions. Listen carefully because you will hear the talk or conversation and questions ONLY ONCE. When you hear a question, read the four answer choices and choose the best answer to that question. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.


Questions 1114

11. (A) To get some exercise.

(B) To buy some food.

(C) To make a phone call.

(D) To take some fresh air.


12. (A) A salad sandwich.

(B) A plain yogurt.

(C) A piece of cheesecake.

(D) A piece of white bread.


13. (A) He is the womans boss.

(B) He is rather lazy.

(C) He is on diet.

(D) He is a vegetarian.


14. (A) Get some exercise.

(B) Find a part-time job.

(C) Dine out with the woman.

(D) Buy some meat on his way home.


Questions 1518

15. (A) Two.                      

(B) Three.

(C) Four.                    

(D) Five.


16. (A) It is the easiest for the passenger.

(B) It is the most comfortable for the elephant.

(C) It is elegant and simple.

(D)It is carried out with a special command.


17. (A) To ensure passengers safety.

(B) To collect fares from passengers.

(C) To teach passenger how to ride the elephant.

(D) To feed the elephant during the ride.


18. (A) Poachers.                    

(B) Tourists.

(C) Mountaineers.                

(D) Elephant trainers.

Questions 1922

19. (A) College financing channels.

(B) Grades required for sholarships.

(C) Campus jobs.

(D) Tuition fees.


20. (A) Donations.

(B) State lottery money.

(C) Money from the government.

(D) Money saved from hiring outside-workers.


21. (A) They use state lottery money to give free tuitions.

(B) They get adequately financed by the state government.

(C) They accept big donations by local business people.

(D) They collect high tuitions from international students.


22. (A) A special talent in music or sports.

(B) An excellent record in community work.

(C) At least B average in high school.

(D) Being particularly strong in math or science.


Questions 2326  

23. (A) They want to have a simpler life style.

(B) Theyd like to enjoy foods that are tastier.

(C) It is no longer fashionable to eat processed foods.

(D) It is necessary for them to change their eating habits.


24. (A) To improve the quality of foods.

(B) To increase the amount of foods.

(C) To reduce the production cost.

(D) To make foods more nutritious.


25. (A) Natural foods contain less chemical additives.

(B) Natural foods are grown in farming areas.

(C) Natural foods provide essential vitamins and minerals.

(D) Natural foods produce as many calories as processed foods.


26. (A) Chickens and eggs produced on battery farms.

(B) Vegetables and grain grown in soil rich in organic matters.

    (C) Animals allowed to feed and move freely in healthy pastures.

(D) Foods that have not been affected by chemical fertilizers


Questions 2730

27. (A) He needs to inquire about a new product.

(B) He knows it is a 24-hour service.

(C) He thinks he can get his data back.

(D) He has a complaint to make.


28. (A) He is unable to get connected.

(B) He has just lost all his data.

(C) He lacks necessary computing skills.

(D) He is in need of a new hard disk driver.


29. (A) Arrange to send someone for a check.

(B) Send the man a brand-new computer.

(C) Give the man some money as compensation.

(D) Ask an expert to offer guidance over the phone.


30. (A) The man has been making the call for some time.

(B) The woman works with a 24-hour service.

(C) The engineer will retrieve all the data for the man.

(D) The man has just bought a brand-new computer.


Part C: Listening and Translation
I. Sentence Translation

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 5 sentences in English. You will hear the sentences ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each sentence, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.

















II. Passage Translation

Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear 2 passages in English. You will hear the passages ONLY ONCE. After you have heard each passage, translate it into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. You may take notes while you are listening.








Directions: In this section, you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions based on its content. You are to choose ONE best answer, (A), (B), (C) or (D), to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.

Questions 15

   Wild claims on labels of worthless medicines are much less frequent than they were years ago. But some over-the-counter drugs are still being promoted by tall stories, sometimes told in booklets or through advertising, rather than on the label.

   One tall story is that every American today suffers from a vitamin or mineral deficiency and needs vitamin supplements. This isnt so. Vitamins and minerals are plentiful in our food supply. Eating a variety of foods makes it almost certain that you will get a full quota of these nutrients.

   Infants, pregnant women, the sick or convalescent, and those who are dieting may need special supplements. But the family physician is the best authority on what vitamin supplements are needed.

   If your doctor does recommend supplements, take the suggested doseno more. Some people take or give vitamins on the principle that if a little is good, twice as much is better. Excessive doses of certain vitamins are known to be toxic.

   If you are overweight, dont fall for a formula that promises you a slim, trim figure without dieting or calorie counting. To reduce, you must consume fewer calories than you use up in daily living. If calories are not used in producing heat or energy, they are stored as fat. If you need to lose only a few pounds, you can probably work out your own diet. But if you need to lose many pounds, have your doctor plan a diet for you. Crash diets can break down your health, not your weight.

   Beware of cosmetics that make exaggerated claims or promises. There are no quick or easy cures for acne. Acne is a complex disease caused by a combination of factors. No creams from a drugstore can cure it.

   Dont trust any cream or gadget that promises to give you curves where you want them, or take them from where they are not wanted. Any cream that could do this would not be safe to use and there are no gadgets that are effective for spot reducing. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act protects the consumer by prohibiting any statements on labels or packages that are false or misleading.


1. What would be the best title for the passage?

(A) Nutrient Deficiency.            

(B) Exaggerated Claims.

(C) Food Supplements.              

(D) Calorie Consumption.


2. Vitamin supplements may be needed by ______.

(A) the elderly                    

(B) the handicapped

(C) teenagers                     

(D) people on diets


3. The phrase fall for (para. 5) is closest in meaning to ______.

(A) count on                     

(B) settle for

(C) turn down                    

(D) work out


4. The author warns in the passage that acne ______.

(A) is the disease caused by a vitamin deficiency

(B) is incurable by any cream from a drugstore

(C) will break down health if left untreated

(D) will not respond to any known treatment


5. According to the passage, overstatements about products ______.

(A) are prohibited by law           

(B) are made through advertising

(C) are printed on parcels and packages

(D) are currently few and far between


Questions 610

   When Shelton Johnson was 5, his family took him to Berchtesgaden National Park in the Bavarian Alps. Now 52, he still remembers his sense of awe. The mountains, the sky being so closeit affected me profoundly, said Mr. Johnson, who now works as a ranger at Yosemite National Park in California.

   In 23 years on the job, Mr. Johnson has been equally struck by how few of his fellow African-Americans visit the national parks. So a few years ago, he decided to write Oprah Winfrey, the American entertainment icon. Every year, America is becoming increasingly diverse, but that diversity is not reflected in the national parks, even though African-Americans and other groups played a vital role in the founding of national parks, he wrote. If the national parks are Americas playground, then why are we not playing in the most beautiful places in America?

   The Oprah Winfrey Show recently aired two episodes from Yosemite in response to Mr. Johnsons appeal.

   The National Park Service is expanding its efforts to diversify both its guests and its work force as the agency prepares to celebrate its centennial in 2016.

   Surveys show that visitors to America's 393 national parksthere were 285.5 million of them in 2009are mainly non-Hispanic whites, with blacks the least likely to visit. The Park Service now says the problem is linked to the parks very survival. If the American public doesnt know that we exist or doesnt care, our mission is potentially in jeopardy, said Jonathan B. Jarvis, who took over as director of the Park Service last year.

   In a Park Service survey it commissioned in 2000, only 13 percent of black respondents reported visiting a national park in the previous two years.

   Jim Gramann, a visiting social scientist with the Park Service who is overseeing a review of a follow-up survey in 2008 and 2009 that is to be released early next year, said the gap persisted. The demographic face of America is not reflected in national park visitation, with a few exceptions, Mr. Gramann said.

   But some officials acknowledge that the parks may not seem welcoming to specific ethnic groups. They cited rules that limit the number of people in picnic areas or the number of tents that can be pitched at specific sites, which can clash with the vacation style of extended Latino families. But no group avoids national parks as much as African-Americans. The 2000 survey found that blacks were three times as likely as whites to believe that park employees gave them poor service and that parks were uncomfortable places.

   Attendance tends to be more homogenously white at wilderness parks like Yosemite, where a 2009 survey found that 77 percent of the visitors were white, 11 percent Latino, 11 percent Asian and 1 percent black.

   Mr. Johnson said he was more likely to meet someone from Finland or Israel in the park than from an African-American neighborhood in the United States. Its something thats pervasive in the cultureit doesnt matter whether youre Oprah or a postal worker, Mr. Johnson said.  


6. When his family took Shelton Johnson to the national park, he ______.

(A) couldnt help but admire the sight

(B) did not see many fellow black visitors

(C) made up his mind to work as a park ranger

(D) found the mountains blocking the view of the sky


7. Why did Mr. Johnson write Oprah Winfrey, the American entertainment icon?

(A) Because Oprah Winfrey would air her opinion in "the Oprah Winfrey Show".

(B) Because Oprah Winfrey related easily to black people as a black anchorwoman.

(C) Because he wanted what he saw in the park to be brought to public attention.

(D) Because he knew no other person well enough to solve the problem.


8. According to the passage, the National Park Service ______.

(A) faces the survival problem for lack of funds

(B) has a history of about one hundred years

(C) does not care about the number of visitors to the parks

(D) does not survey the groups of visitors to the parks


9. Poor attendance of black people in national parks is primarily due to ______.

(A) the remote possibility of meeting fellow black visitors

(B) the clash between the service items and their lifestyle

(C) the uncomfortable places allocated for their picnics

(D) the discriminatory treatment from the park employees


10. Which group of the following visitors is Mr. Johnson least likely to meet when working

    at Yosemite?

(A) Asian visitors.                  

(B) European tourists.

(C) African-Americans.              

(D) Hispanic whites.


Questions 1115

   The number of people emigrating from Ireland is currently estimated at 30,000 annually. There is no doubt that the bulk of young Irish emigrants end up in London. And while some of their problems are unique to this generation, many of them work in the same jobs and live in the same conditions as endless previous generations of emigrants to Britain.

   While some Irish take their degrees to London and use them to get jobs in the burgeoning service industry, for many others who left school in their teens and experienced months, if not years, of unemployment their second act on reaching London is to sign on for social welfare. Their first, and most difficult, is finding somewhere to live.

   Social welfare benefits, when they include a rent allowance, are better in England. For a young unemployed man or woman, living at home with little or no unemployment assistance in Ireland, this can seem an attractive proposition, offering independence, a subsistence income and at least the hope of a job in a city where unemployment, while real, is a lot lower than in Ireland. Many young Irish emigrants go straight on the dole when they arrive in England. Some find jobs fairly quickly, others remain on the dole for months.

   Andrew Fox is living on the dole, and is also in receipt of housing benefit. And he is living in relative comfort, as hes staying in Conway House, the hostel for young Irish men run by the Catholic Church in Kilburn. This costs ?50 a week for bed and breakfast, and all the young men there spoke glowingly of the facilities it offers and the welcome they receive from staff. There was a 300 per cent increase in demand for places in this hostel in the first six months of last year.

   But those who get into Conway House are the lucky ones and there is a six month time limit on residence there. It has a capacity for just 300, a drop in the ocean, and thousands of young Irish emigrants live in squats across north London. The squats are empty houses, many of them owned by the local council. They may be being prepared for sale into the private sector. Sometimes the council boards up the windows or removes the stairs, and the electricity is usually cut off. The conditions vary widely in the squats, from those in houses which are in good condition and where the illegal tenants are painters and decorators and do the place up, to those in bad repair where the squatters live on mattresses on the floors in rooms lit only by candles. If they reconnect the electricity they face arrest and charges for stealing it.

   Loneliness as well as the need for practical help ensures that many Irish people stick together. One of the subjects discussed at a seminar on emigration in Kilburn was the trauma experienced by Irish emigrants, revealed in statistics which showed a disproportionately high number of Irish admissions to mental hospitals. One of the reasons for the sense of alienation was the sense of being foreigners in England and the hostility they experienced from many sections of the media and the police. Those who leave the country voluntarily are more likely to adapt well than those, in the majority, forced to do so out of economic necessity. Most of those who attended the seminar in Kilburn were in no doubt about the category they belonged to. I love Ireland, says Andrew Fox. I wouldnt have left it, only there was no work there.


11. According to the passage, the majority of emigrants from Ireland to London ______.

(A) have useful qualifications

(B) encounter problems typical of the 21st century

(C) are in the employ of service industries

(D) are in the same position as their predecessors


12. What young Irish people want when they emigrate to London is ______.

(A) to have a better chance of getting jobs

(B) to get somewhere to live

(C) to enjoy life in an international city

(D) to live on the social security system


13. Which of the following is TRUE about Conway House?

(A) You cannot have lunch and dinner there.

(B) You have to be emigrants to stay there.

(C) It is not possible to stay there over 6 months.

(D) It is too expensive to live there.



14. The main problem in living in a squat is ______.

(A) the lack of comfort

(B) the danger of a fire

(C) the violation of the law

(D) the absence of security


15. The trauma experienced by Irish emigrants is demonstrated in the fact that ______.

  (A) more Irish emigrants suffer from mental illness

(B) many Irish emigrants are arrested by the police

(C) the media is biased against the Irish emigrants

(D) the Irish emigrants in London tend to stick together


Questions 1620

   My first visit to Paris began in the company of some earnest students. My friend and I, therefore, being full of independence and the love of adventure, decided to go off on our own and explore Northern France as hitch-hikers.

   We managed all right down the main road from Paris to Rouen, because there were lots of vegetable trucks with sympathetic drivers. After that we still made headway along secondary roads to Fcamp, because we fell in with two family men who had left their wives behind and were off on a spree on their own. In Fcamp, having decided that it was pointless to reserve money for emergencies such as railway fares, we spent our francs in great contentment, carefully arranging that we should have just enough left for supper and an overnight stay at the Youth Hostel in Dieppe, before catching the early morning boat.

   Dieppe was only fifty miles away, so we thought it would be a shame to leave Fcamp until late in the afternoon.

   There is a hill outside Fcamp, a steep one. We walked up it quite briskly, saying to each other as the lorries climbed past us, that, after all, we couldnt expect a French truck driver to stop on a hill for us. It would be fine going from the top.

   It probably would have been fine going at the top, if we had got there before the last of the evening truck convoy had passed on its way westwards along the coast. We failed to realize that at first, and sat in dignified patience on the crest of the hill. We were sitting there two and a half hours laterstill dignified, but less patient. Then we went about two hundred yards further down to a little bistro, to have some coffee and ask advice from the proprietor. He told us that there would be no more trucks and explained that our gentlemanly signaling stood out the slightest chance of stopping a private motorist.

   This is the way one does it! he exclaimed, jumping into the centre of the road and completely barring the progress of a vast, gleaming car which contained a rather supercilious Belgian family, who obviously thought nothing to all of the two bedraggled English students. However, having had to stop, they let us into the back seat, after carefully removing all objects of value, including their daughter.

   Conversation was not easy, but we were more than content to stay quietuntil the car halted suddenly in an out-of-the-way village far from the main road, and we learned to our surprise that the Belgians went no farther. They left us standing on a deserted country road, looking sorrowfully after them as their rear lamp disappeared into the darkness.

   We walked in what we believed to be the general direction of Dieppe for a long time. At about 11 p.m., we heard, far in the distance, a low-pitched staccato rumbling. We ran to a rise in the road and from there we saw, as if it were some mirage, a vast French truck approaching us. It was no time for half measures. My friend sat down by the roadside and hugged his leg, and looked as much like a road accident as nature and the circumstances permitted. I stood in the middle of the road and held my arms out. As soon as the lorry stopped we rushed to either side and gabbled out a plea in poor if voluble French for a lift to Dieppe.

   There were two aboard, the driver and his relief, and at first they thought we were a holdup. When we got over that, they let us in, and resumed the journey.

   We reached the Youth Hostel at Dieppe at about 1:30 a.m., or as my friend pointed out, precisely 3? hours after all doors had been lockedThis, in fact, was not true, because after we climbed over a high wall and tiptoed across the forecourt, we discovered that the door to the washroom was not properly secured, and we were able to make our stealthy way to the mens dormitory where we slept soundly until roused at 9:30 the following morning.


16. The author decided to hitch-hike with his friend in Northern France as ______.

(A) the students didnt want to go with him

(B) it was difficult to find public transport

(C) He didnt want to stay with the students

(D) He had never explored the place


17. Why did the author and his friend spend most of their money in Fcamp?

(A) They saw no reason to save it.

(B) The fares to Dieppe were very cheap.

(C) They knew there would be emergencies.

(D) They were leaving early next morning.


18. The bistro proprietor thought that cars wouldnt stop for the two students because


(A) only gentlemen could understand their signals

(B) they only signaled to gentlemen

(C) they were too polite to signal

(D) their signals were too polite


19. The authors friend sat down at the side of the road because ______.

(A) he was too tired to walk any further

(B) he had had an accident and hurt his leg

(C) he thought the lorry driver would see him clearly there

(D) he wanted to give the lorry driver a reason to stop


20. They asked the lorry driver for a lift in ______.

(A) rapid and accurate French

(B) slow and imprecise French

(C) quick and inaccurate French

(D) hesitant and precise French


Questions 2125

   One point three billion metric tonsthats how much food that we waste each year. Not an easy number to wrap ones head around. Try to imagine 143,000 Eiffel Towers stacked one on top of the othertogether theyd weigh around 1.3 billion tons. The sheer scale of the number makes it practically impossible to grasp, no matter how you come at it.

   Rendering the figure all the more unfathomable is the fact that alongside this massive wastage of food, 840 million people experience chronic hunger on a daily basis. Many millions more suffer from silent hungermalnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

   For the more economically minded, heres another number: the economic cost of food wastage runs around $750 billion per annum. This is expressed in producer prices; if we were to consider retail prices and the wider impacts on the environment including climate change, the figure would be far higher.

   When food is lost or wasted, the energy, land and water resources that went into producing it are also squanderedwhile at the same time large amounts of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere during production, processing, and cooking.

   We simply cannot tolerate the wastage of 1.3 billion tons of food per yearone-third of the worlds annual food production. Theres a lot that can be done. To begin with, food losses and waste need to be seen as a cross-cutting policy issue, rather than a lifestyle choice to be left in the hands of individual consumers and their consciences. The world needs to wake up to the need for policies on food waste and losses that look at all stages of the food chain, from production to consumption.

   Losses of foodon farms, during processing, transport and at marketsrepresent a thorn in the side of food security in most developing countries, where post-harvest losses can reach as high as 40 percent of production in some cases. Especially in these places, investment in infrastructure for transportation, storage, cooling and marketing of food is badly needed. Training farmers in best practices also has an important role to play.

   In developed countries, food retailing practices require a rethink. For example, rejection of food products on the basis of aesthetic concerns is a major cause of food waste. Some supermarkets have already begun relaxing standards on fruit appearance, selling misshaped items at reduced prices and helping raise awareness that ugly does not mean bad. More approaches like this, that find markets or uses for surplus food, are needed.

   Both businesses and households should monitor to see where and how they waste food and take corrective steps, because prevention of waste is even more important than recycling. Unlike the mindboggling figure of 1.3 billion tons, these simple steps are easy enough to grasp and within reach of each of us. The world has enough on its plate food wastage is something we can all do something about now.


21. Why does the author mention Eiffel Tower in the introductory paragraph?

(A) To mean that more towers like Eiffel could be built without food losses and waste.

(B) To imply that it is now impossible to build an Eiffel Tower elsewhere in the world.

(C) To create a visual picture of the size of the worlds food losses and wastage per year.

(D) To compare the cost of Eiffel Tower with that of the worlds annual food wastage.


22. One point three billion tons of food is wasted annually in the world, which ______.

(A) gives off tons of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere

(B) accounts for one-third of the worlds total food production

(C) amounts to what can otherwise feed 840 million starving people

(D) makes up 40 percent of total production in developing countries


23. In which of the following stages is food likely to be wasted in some developed countries?

(A) Production.                   

(B) Storage.

(C) Rejection.                   

(D) Consumption.


24. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the concluding paragraph?

(A) Businesses should do more than individuals to prevent waste of all sizes.

(B) It is up to every one of us to do something about the shocking food waste.

(C) People should keep track of where food is wasted and recycle the waste.

(D) Corrective steps are well beyond the reach of ordinary people.


25. What would be the best title for the passage?

(A) Time to Stop Food Wastage.

(B) Global Food Security.

(C) Ways to Eradicate Chronic Hunger.

(D) Food Production and Waste.


Questions 2630

   Starting up a business is easier in the service sector than in manufacturing. A new manufacturer has to invest heavily in factory premises, machinery and staff whereas a service sector start-up requires a much smaller initial investment. However, these new service sector firms often take a long time to build up a client base. They rely heavily on word of mouth to attract customers, a slow process that causes a few uncomfortable months while waiting for customers to arrive. With few customers, cash flow is minimal, but the start-up bank loan still has to serviced, and there may be promotional costs like price cuts or free samples.

   In contrast, new manufacturers have to find more start-up capital. They take the risk of a high initial investment only because they know there is a ready market for their product. On the other hand, the service sector start-up is more speculative, based on the hope that people will want the service offered, so payback may be seriously delayed. But service sector start-ups have one big advantage over manufacturing. A restaurant, for example, could be set up in a few weeks, enough time to find premises, buy equipment off the shelf and recruit staff. A manufacturer, on the other hand, needs about a year to find suitable premises, install machinery and make deals with suppliers of materials. This delays the time taken for cash inflows to start offsetting the start-up costs for the manufacture.

   Cash flow is also influenced by the way demand may vary according to the time of year. Many manufacturers face a seasonal pattern of demand for their products, but the seasonality is more acute for many service sector firms. Manufacturers can produce stock before their seasonal peak, thus allowing them to spread the pressure on the production process. But for service providers who make most of their money during one peak period, seasonality increases the level of risk. If the peak season fails, e.g. ice cream sales crash because of a cold summer, the whole business could collapse before the next peak season.

   Even more importantly, service providers have to respond instantly to changes in customer demand. Any variation, whether caused by seasonal factors or changes in fashion, hits service providers immediately. This implies an even greater need for a market-oriented approach by service providers. There is, however, a positive aspect for service firms: unlike manufacturers, they are less likely to be caught with huge stocks of unwanted products.

   A firms financial success depends on adding value to its products, that is, selling its products at a price that is higher than the cost of making them. In setting a price, companies must ensure that their customers believe that the product or service is worth the price being charged. This is harder for service providers. Customers can calculate more or less the cost of providing a restaurant meal or painting a room. Its much harder to judge the cost of manufacturing products like cars or refrigerators. Thus, service providers have to work much harder to add value to their services while avoiding any suspicion of overcharging. The implication of this is that manufacturers are likely to find it easier to trade with higher profit margins than service sector firms.


26. Why is a service business easier to start up than a manufacturing business?

(A) It needs less capital to set up.

(B) It is more aware of what its customers want.

(C) It has no difficulty finding trained staff.

(D) It depends on personal recommendation.


27. New service sector businesses may face a cash flow problem because ______.

(A) they have to reduce prices in order to attract customers

(B) they cannot always get a big enough loan from their banks

(C) they have used most of their capital to start up the business

(D) they may not have an immediate demand for their services


28. Variation in demand is not usually a problem for manufacturers as ______.

(A) they need less cash once the initial investment has been made

(B) they know that there is a steady market for their products

(C) they can use off-peak periods to build up stocks of their products

(D) they are able to reduce their prices to encourage sales in off-peak periods


29. The phrase market-oriented approach (para. 4) means that service providers must


(A) promote their business through advertising

(B) be aware of their customers changing needs

(C) keep a tight control over their cash flow situation

(D) take care to maintain a balance between costs and profits


30. Manufacturers trade with higher profit margins because ______.

(A) their initial investment is higher so they need a higher return

(B) their customers have no idea about the cost involved

(C) their cost includes a much higher budget for advertising and promotion

(D) their products are generally more expensive to make



Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.


   Robots came into the world as a literary device whereby the writers and film-makers of the early 20th century could explore their hopes and fears about technology, as the era of the automobile, telephone and aeroplane picked up its reckless jazz-age speed. Since moving from the page and screen to real life, robots have been a mild disappointment. They do some things that humans cannot do themselves, like exploring Mars, and a host of things people do not much want to do, like dealing with unexploded bombs or vacuuming floors. And they are very useful in bits of manufacturing.

   But reliable robotsespecially ones required to work beyond the safety cages of a factory floorhave proved hard to make, and robots are still pretty stupid. So although they fascinate people, they have not yet made much of a mark on the world. That seems about to change. The dramatic growth in the power of silicon chips, digital sensors and high-bandwidth communications improves robots just as it improves all sorts of other products.



Directions: Translate the following passage into English and write your version in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.







  • Сѧһ꼶ǰѧ
      ʱ䣺2016/12/18 13:00
  • Ȥ̸֮㲻֪ķȤ
      ʱ䣺2016/12/03 16:00
  • һ꼶ǰѧӢイ
      ʱ䣺2016/12/18 13:30
  • ¸I150ࣨ...
  • ¸I150ࣨ...
  • ¸I150ࣨ...
  • ¸I150ࣨ...
  • ¸I150ࣨ...